American Board of Surgery with subspecialty certification in surgical critical care. Sickle cell trait (SCT) is not the same thing as sickle cell disease, and won’t ever turn into that much more serious condition. Take it everywhere with you; to the gym, in your car, at work, at school, and of course at home. In sickle disease, the red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape that is rigid, causing the red blood cells to be damaged. If sickle trait is present, adjustments in the training programs can allow the athlete to reach his or her full potential. If this happens talk to your doctor about it. Perhaps one of the most affected organs of the body in sickle disease is the spleen, whose job it is to filter the blood, get rid of debris, and to remove damaged red blood cells. In sickle trait, symptoms rarely occur but are usually are brought on by exercise, presumably because of lactic acid production as the body moves from aerobic to anaerobic production. And a variety of other organs can also be involved, most often causing a pain crisis because the blood supply is interrupted when the sickle cells obstruct the small capillaries. 41. 44. When a person exercises, muscle protein breaks down and produces a waste product called myoglobin. So when his teammates compete in the Mile High City, Clark is relegated to the sidelines. Sickle cell trait (SCT) is an inherited blood disorder. Compound heterozygous sickle cell disease can be mistaken as uncomplicated sickle cell trait, particularly when an unusual … Autosomal means that the gene is not located on either the X or Y sex chromosome. Circulation 119:1085, 2009. 1. Due to the impact other infections can have on people living with sickle cell (including pneumonia and acute chest syndrome) anyone with a sickle cell disorder who has a worsening cough, difficulty in breathing or fever above 38 o C should urgently contact their centre of care or in an emergency 999. There is less … 46. It is inherited, affecting about one out of every 12 African Americans and one out of every hundred Latinos; it can occur in people of other races, as well, but not nearly as commonly. Sickle cell trait can NOT turn into sickle cell disease. There is a common theme that reasserts itself in medicine and in life; prevention is easier than dealing with disaster. These extreme conditions include: High altitudes Sickle cell trait is NOT a disease and will never turn into a disease. Rhabdomyolysis is a rapid deterioration and destruction of skeletal muscle which may be caused by dehydration, hypoxia and hyperthermia associated with extreme exertion. Well now in 2020 still experience the same things almost weekly. 43, The military eliminated problems in basic training thought to be associated with SCT by using strict training guidelines for ALL recruits. Wallach JB. You can never drink too much water when you have sickle cell disease. Effects of varying pH and of increasing intracellular hemoglobin concentration by osmotic shrinkage. Hydrate. Howe A and Boden B. Heat-related illness in athletes. People with sickle cell trait usually do not have any health problems. Pearls and pitfalls: exertional sickling. People with sickle trait usually live normal lives and have very few, if any, symptoms. If both parents have SCT, there is a 50% (or 1 in 2) chance that any child of theirs also will have SCT, if the child inherits the sickle cell gene from one of the parents. When his team plays in Denver, the Mile High City, so named because it sits at an altitude of 5,280 feet, Clark is sidelined. 46. 48. For these rare athletes, it may be that extreme physiological distress is created by unrecognized rare abnormalities of metabolism or muscle disorders unrelated to SCT in the setting of vigorous exertion, especially if the person is deconditioned. Sudden death and sickle cell trait: medicolegal considerations and implications. Maron B, Doerer J, Haas T, et al. This same immunization is also given to any patient who has needed a splenectomy (an operation to remove the spleen). Anzalone ML, et al. Copyright 2011, Colorado Sickle Cell Treatment and Research Center, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. People with sickle cell trait usually do not have any health problems. Mr. Clark's story is a reminder that while a person may appear fit, there is always potential danger that lurks under the surface. The hemoglobin in SCT red blood cells may sickle with severe hypoxia and dehydration, as occurs uniquely in the renal medulla. Unfortunately, that is not always the case. … People with sickle cell trait are more likely to have muscle breakdown or heat stroke when doing intense physical exercise, such as in competitive sports or military training. As we learned in our last article water should be our best friend. 43. With support from the National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio as a subaward of HRSA cooperative agreement U32 MC00148. 37. Even with the trait there is sickling that occurs the blood and when those sickle platelets try to flow through the vessels, they get stuck in places throughout the body resulting in the extreme pain. Such sickling is also routinely seen in tissues as a post-mortem change. People can dream, but their road to success can be derailed in the most unusual ways, perhaps none as strange as that which affected Ryan Clark of the Pittsburgh Steelers. After the death of a college athlete in 2006, the NCAA began recommending testing of all athletes whose sickle status was not known (most states routinely test newborns). Patients with full blown sickle cell anemia have inherited a sickle gene from each parent and are usually diagnosed in childhood as having this autosomal recessive disease. Sudden Deaths in Young Competitive Athletes: Analysis of 1866 Deaths in the United States, 1980-2006. Terms of Use. Sickle cell trait and fatal rhabdomyolysis in football training: a case study. There are too many complications to discuss here, but commonly in sickle disease, spleen function is gradually lost as blood vessels become blocked and the spleen dies or infarcts. National Collegiate Athletic Association. There is less oxygen available in the air at high altitudes and the intense exercise and dehydration caused his normally-shaped red blood cells to morph into the sickle shape. These references are available in Module 4: Bibliography. Prevention of Exercise-Related Death Unexplained by Preexisting Disease (EDU) Associated with Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) without Hemoglobin (Hb) Screening or Hb Specific Management. Sudden unexplained and exertion-related heat illness deaths were observed in 1 of every 3100 recruits with SCT compared with 1 of every 10,000 without sickle cell trait. 47. Sickle cell trait in sports.

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